White-crowned sparrow

Learn song heard 252 times (adult produces in < hour)
(Catchpole and Slater 2008 p 57 from Petrinovich 1985)
Not learning before 10 days of age (Catchpole and Slater 2008 p 57)
Coastal species develop song early, set up territory in Sept, produce up to 4 song types, reduce to 1 or 2 to match neighbors
(Catchpole and Slater 2008 p 65)
Sedentary subspecies learnt over broader range of ages, sang fewer song types. Migrants shorter season , greater uncertainty about where settles, several songs (Catchpole and Slater 2008 p 76)
In open country use higher frequencies than those in deciduous forests
(Catchpole and Slater 2008 p 99)
Females song structurally similar to males but shorter
(Catchpole and Slater 2008 p 126)
Avoid singing when others are singing
(Catchpole and Slater 2008 p 138 from Wasserman 1979)
Shown to use song for territorial defense
(Catchpole and Slater 2008 p 144-5 from Falls 1987)
Sedentary populations share more songs than migratory populations (Nelson et al. 2001 from Bird Song p244)
Sedentary race have one song type , dialect, with sharp boundary between dialects (Marler & Tamura 1964 from Bird song p250)


Petrinovich, L. 1985. Factors influencing song development in the white-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia leuophrys). J. comp. Psychol., 99, 15-29.

Wasserman, F. E. 1979. The relationship between habitat and song in the white-throated sparrow Zonotrichia albicollis. Condor, 81, 424-6.

Falls, J. B. 1987. Does song deter intrusion in white-throated sparrows Zonotrichia alibicollis? Can. J Zool., 66, 206-11